بنية الثورات العلمية

  • Title: بنية الثورات العلمية
  • Author: Thomas S. Kuhn توماس كون شوقي جلال
  • ISBN: null
  • Page: 259
  • Format: Paperback
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      Published :2019-03-19T03:53:39+00:00

    About " Thomas S. Kuhn توماس كون شوقي جلال "

  • Thomas S. Kuhn توماس كون شوقي جلال

    American historian and philosopher of science, a leading contributor to the change of focus in the philosophy and sociology of science in the 1960s Thomas Samuel Kuhn was born in Cincinnati, Ohio He received a doctorate in theoretical physics from Harvard University in 1949 But he later shifted his interest to the history and philosophy of science, which he taught at Harvard, the University of California at Berkeley, Princeton University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT.In 1962, Kuhn published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which depicted the development of the basic natural sciences in an innovative way According to Kuhn, the sciences do not uniformly progress strictly by scientific method Rather, there are two fundamentally different phases of scientific development in the sciences In the first phase, scientists work within a paradigm set of accepted beliefs When the foundation of the paradigm weakens and new theories and scientific methods begin to replace it, the next phase of scientific discovery takes place Kuhn believes that scientific progress that is, progress from one paradigm to another has no logical reasoning Kuhn s theory has triggered widespread, controversial discussion across many scientific disciplines.

  • 611 Comments

  • Scientists are so passionate about their work, and even if you're a scientist yourself it can sometimes take you by surprise to see just how passionate they are. A few years ago, when I was working at NASA, we made up a game called If Research Were Romance. Here, let me show you how to play.In real life, Thomas Kuhn wrote a book about paradigm changes in science. But if research were romance, he might have written a book about relationships instead. It might have been quite similar in many ways. [...]


  • *عن سلوك الأفراد الذين يقومون بمسح المنشورات القديمة لهم على الفيسبوك لأنها أصبحت ساذجة جداً بالنسبة لهم***"إن العلم الذي يتردد في مسألة نسيان مؤسسيه خاسر"وايتهيد "أخشى أنه لديك تغيير في البراديجم"يعالج الكاتب أحد المشكلات التي يراها في تأريخ العلم, وهي الإدّعاء بأن العلم ترا [...]


  • With the publication of this landmark work, Kuhn gave an entirely new way to think about science and the process of scientific discovery; it completely contradicted what was previously believed about the functioning of scientific discovery and how we came to discoveries about the natural world. The philosophy of science before Kuhn began writing was most influenced by Karl Popper. He put forth the popular notion of falsifiability, whereby all scientific theories are tenable only if they are fals [...]


  • Remember your 10th grade Geometry class? It was a 55 minute class just before lunch. Picture yourself, 15 years old, Friday, ensconced in Geometry on a beautiful late September day. If you’re a girl, you’re much more interested in whether the new boy is going to sit with Amber during lunch for a third day in a row, and what he’s going to say to her this time; he’s so confident and handsome. If you’re a guy, you’re much more interested in the 17 year old Varsity cheerleader at the fro [...]


  • I can understand why the author thanked his family for their consideration of the author's efforts towards this book, as it must have demanded a lot of painstaking effort not to mention time. I would have given it 3 stars for its complicated way of delivering its points; the language is highly complex that it tends at many certain points throughout, that the arguments contradict each other. Five stars, however for its complexity and taken as a whole it is actually coherent. Like the choice betwe [...]


  • A really interesting book, and one that's become ingrained so much that you feel like you're not learning too much at first.Science is not a linear ordered means of progress, within neat and orderly steps as we are taught in grade school. There is the slow steady expansion and exploration of knowledge within a specific ordered system, or paradigm. Many scientists work within this paradigm, as 'recieved beliefs', and unconsciously work to forward these beliefs, although they may claim to work to [...]


  • Let’s start elsewhere. Watch this and then we can talk paradigms:youtube/watch?v=Ahg6qcNow, I don’t normally do that – nor do I like to talk about optical illusions. I generally think illusions mean quite other things to what most people like to say they mean. I find that people tend to say the most boringly predictable things about optical illusions. That is a large part of the source of my aversion to them, like Pavlov’s dogs, I have been taught to cringe at the first sight of the draw [...]


  • يقول كوهن: "التاريخ إذا نظرنا له باعتباره شيئاً آخر أكثر من الحكايات وسير أحداث الزمان في تتابع الأحقاب يمكن أن يؤدي إلى تحول حاسم في صورة العلم التي نعيش أسرى لها الآن". فالنظرة إلى التاريخ، تاريخ أي شيءٍ على أنه خطٌ مستقيم ممتد نستطيع من خلال النظر إلى ترتيب وتعاقب نقاط معين [...]


  • Within this book, a 15-page essay somehow gets crammed into 174 tedious pages and crowned by a lengthy 35-page postscript. In its chapters Kuhn, father of the expression “paradigm shift,” shows us how science advances in spasmodic fractures that shatter previous models of nature. But at 210 pages, mission creep sinks in.The book does more than propose a new model of scientific progress. It also tells us why other models are mistaken. Kuhn refutes the correspondence theory of truth, logical p [...]


  • I first read Kuhn's book during my first year as a Ph.D. student, and found it rather interesting. It challenges notions of scientific progress as liner by suggesting instead a process of "paradigm shift." Essentially, Kuhn argues that researchers in a branch of science accept as normal a set of "received beliefs" that guide and bound their investigations into new phenomena. Because of this set of accepted beliefs and assumptions, new ways of looking at the world are often suppressed or ignored. [...]


  • قراءة أخرى وريفيو مُحدث:ترتكز فلسفة كون حول ما يسمى ب"النموذج الإرشادي" وهو مجموعة المعتقدات والأساليب التي يتبناها المجتمع العلمي في مرحلة ما، وبلوغ نظرية ما مرتبة النموذج الإرشادي يعني أنها أفضل من منافسيها في نظر المجتمع العلمي، وأنها قدمت إجابات على مشاكل لم تستطع سابق [...]


  • a response to some of the reviews here:From those giving the book a negative rating, we inevitably get the standard accusation of relativism, which is bullshit and Kuhn and his followers have responded appropriately. A positive three-star review says Kuhn's major thesis is that scientific progress is largely illusory, when Kuhn says nothing of the sort and has also defended himself against such objections in the past by explaining, very simply, what a careful reader would have already gleaned fr [...]


  • Thomas Kuhn, through the concept of paradigm shift, has demythologized science as an accumulation of knowledge through smooth progress. That, for Kuhn, is just normal science, the incremental progress within the limits, biases and assumptions of a paradigm. For him, a paradigm is a set of accepted practices within the scientific community, the scientific traditions the scientists have grown up with. For him, “The success of a paradigm… is at the start largely a promise of success discoverabl [...]


  • When most people hear Science the first thing that comes to their mind is truth or objectivity. That's not what scientific knowledge is about, though. Science can't get us any closer to an objective truth, no more than religion can. What it can do, though, and do very well, is solve the puzzles that scientists face in their research by predicting how nature behaves. That prediction, if successful, is often enough of a progress to enable us to evolve our technologies and civilizations.However, un [...]


  • Kuhn, a physicist and philosopher and historian of science, wrote The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, producing other editions until his death in 1996. The book was very influential (see description), serving as a starting point for reappraisals within several disciplines. One, psychology, was specifically covered by John Bannon's Philosophy of Psychology class held during the second semester of 1982/83 at Loyola University Chicago.I found the book profoundly stimulating, challengin [...]


  • Bit of a preface: I hated this book. It contains some really good ideas, which are totally worth discussing, but the whole thing is so much wordier and denser than it needs to be (this, coming from me!); seriously, the ideas put forth in this 200-page monstrosity would have been better shared in a 5-10 page article. Still, we were assigned to read it for LIS 2000, Understanding Information, and asked to write a 400-word review, describing "how the content of this book relates to the information [...]


  • Isn't it ironic that a book about paradigm shifts caused a paradigm shift in itself? And isn't it even more ironic that I'm studying this book from a humanities perspective, a science Kuhn himself might not even call a science?The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is a fascinating book because it works out, detail after tiny detail, how a scientific revolution takes place. One of the most interesting ideas Kuhn posits is that we can't compare two paradigms with each other (say, Newtonian physi [...]


  • Original, 2-star review:I think the common criticisms that have been popping up here - Kuhn's conclusions are very relativistic, and he's not always clear or concise in the way he conveys them - are fair. Kuhn puts forth a very interesting theory, and I think at least a few sections are very helpful when approaching the history of science. But it's certainly not a fun read, and much of the argument's density could have been fairly easily avoided. If you're a scientist, or have an interest in the [...]


  • أهمية هذا الكتاب تكمن في أن أطروحته إيماء إلى سمة وخاصية في العلم (العلنم التجريبي في صورته الغربية) هي في بعديها اداة فعالة لتقدم العلم وفي نفس الوقت خاصية لها خطورة على فهمنا للعلاقة بين العلم والحقيقة، هذه العلاقة التي حاول الغزالي جادهدا تحديد معالمها في مجتمعه العلمي.وه [...]


  • I’ve seen citations to this book for decades, and it’s been on my shelf, unread-by-me, nearly as long. Finally read it. Kuhn contends that the then-accepted description of scientific process as a largely smooth increase in human knowledge isn’t accurate. Instead, it’s Hegelian-esque: an accepted model less and less satisfactory as more and more things are observed that do not fit; new models emerge and are resisted for reasons rational and not; and one fine day, the paradigm shifts. For [...]


  • كتاب لا بد أن يقرأ!يستطيع هذا الكتاب أن يمنحك رؤية جديدة للعلم ، والمعرفة،،أن يقم لك فكرة أصيلة ، غير مكررة،،و على الرغم من أن الكتاب ثقيل (ربما للترجمة، أو ربما لغة الكتاب ، لست متأكدة في الحقيقة) إلا أنني استمعت بالقراءة، و ربما أعدت قراءة عدد من الصفحات مرة بعد أخرى، ذلك لأن [...]


  • I understand this is a fairly famous book, but I don't understand why. There is enough material for a short essay, and here it is. As scientific instruments and measurements improve, discrepancies appear between what is observed and what the current theory, or paradigm, predicts. As a result, the theory or paradigm must change, but some people resist it. The change from the geocentric model of Ptolemy to the helio-centric model of Copernicus is an example, as it the change from Aristotle to Newt [...]



  • The premise of the book is that science doesn't progress by the cumulative addition of knowledge, but instead advances by major shifts in paradigms that replace, rather than increment, large parts of previous paradigms. To begin with, scientific research in a specific subject is carried out within the bounds of a generally accepted framework that defines what scientists already know about the field, as well as the questions that remain unanswered. This is what Kuhn calls a paradigm. A paradigm i [...]



  • Who hasn't heard the term "paradigm shift?" Guess who introduced it into the popular lexicon? Thomas Kuhn was a philopher of science who retraced the history of many scientific discoveries, especially in physics. He demonstrated how the subjective worldview of the scientists led to their paradigms, or mental models, and ultimately supported a paradigm shift in a whole field like physics. Often major scientific discoveries are made by young outsiders who are not yet steeped in the worldview of an [...]


  • Yet another "important" book, one that advances a theory of "paradigm shift" to explain the transition between scientific worldviews (or transitions from pre-paradigm to paradigm worldviews, in the case of a coalescing field). Although written in an easy-to-understand way, Kuhn's presentation of this material--as evidenced by the somewhat defensive tone he adopts when responding to criticisms about his slipshod use of the term "paradigm" and his tendency to pass between descriptive and normative [...]


  • This book was a revelationI felt the scales literally fall from my eyes and knew the world would never be the same again. In fact I experienced a "paradigm-shift" experience in the reading of it. If you want to know what that is click on the 'book cover' icon and you'll end up at a site where more eloquent people than me can and will tell you about the content of this book and all about the "paradigm-shift"EAT STUFF!!!I had to read it as part of my Education Honours course at Sydney Uni in 1974 [...]


  • في اي ترجمة لكتب دراسة او نقد او تحليل يقدمها باحث غربي عن فلسفة او منهج او قوانين تمت للحضارة الغربية بصلة لا تخلو مقدمة المترجم من أمرين:أما سخط وغضب من ما يراه انه انتقاص وتشوية للحضارة الغربية.او سعادة عارمة اعتقادا منه ان حضارة كسيحة وقد انكشفت عللها وهي على وشك الأفول.كل [...]



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